mulberry factory outlet prices Australian Nobel Prize winners
THE NOBEL PRIZES are among the world’s most prestigious awards. They are the creation of wealthy Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel. Nobel invented dynamite among other things, and, desiring to leave a more positive legacy, left the bulk of his estate to establish the awards in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances.
The first was handed out in1901 and since then 15 people who have spent significant parts of their life in Australia have been awarded the honour.
All of them have been in the sciences except the 1973 winner, novelist Patrick White. These brainy Aussies have done everything from changing our fundamental understanding of the universe to discovering usable penicillin.
2011 Prof Brian P Schmidt (1967 )
For discovering the universe is expanding faster than we thought
Nobel Prize for Physics; awarded with Professor Adam G Riess and Professor Saul Perlmutter
AustralianProf Brian P Schmidt and Americans Dr Adam G Riess and Professor Saul Perlmutter, discovered that the expansion of the universe is speeding uprather than slowing down, as scientists had previously thought.
They had all been looking at the seemingly tiny measurable movements of distant supernovae and both teams found these were accelerating as they moved away from the centre of the Big Bang (at the edge of the universe).
Before this, popular wisdom held that the pulling force of gravity would slow their trajectory, as well as the universe’s growth.”It was being pushed, which means that gravity is working differently than we expected,” Brian said justafterhe won the award.
Scientists now think that something called ‘dark energy’ may be pulling the universe apart.
2009 Prof Elizabeth Helen Blackburn (1948 )
For figuring out how our DNA ages
Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine; awarded with Americans Dr Jack W Szostak and Professor Carol W Greider
In the 1970s Elizabeth and her colleagues made a discovery that explained how DNA eventually begins to deteriorate and how that ages us. They found out that young DNA is protected by little ‘caps’, called telomeres, at the end of our chromosomes.
These caps, with the help of an enzyme called telomerase, stop our chromosomes from deteriorating. Every time a cell divides, the telomeres are worn down a little bit and the enzyme’s job is to partially rebuild them. When the telomeres are worn beyond repair, cell death is triggered. This eventual wear and tear on our chromosomes is one of the reasons our bodies age.
If we can stop telomeres from deteriorating, some suggest that we may be able to slow the ageing process to extend normal lifespans by betweenfive and 30 years. Telomeres also thought to play a key role in cancers, such as pancreatic, bone, prostate, bladder, lung, kidney, and head and neck cancer. If telomerase can be controlled these cancers may be preventable in the future.
2005 Dr J Robin Warren (1937 ) and Prof Barry Marshall (1951 )
For finding the true cause of stomach ulcers
Nobel Prize in the Physiology or Medicine
In the early 1980s DR J Robin Warren(MBBS) and Professor Barry Marshall proved that stress wasn’t responsible for causing stomach ulcers in millions of people worldwide, as was commonly believed, but instead it was caused by a bacteria called Helicobacter pylori.
Prior to this discovery, peptic ulcers, which affect nearly one in 10 adults, were thought to be brought on by psychological stress, and specialised stomach ulcer medications were the world’s biggest selling prescription drugs. Today, stomach ulcers are treated with simple antibiotics. For those who develop ulcers, however, the bacteria creates painful sores in the stomach walls.
After announcing their finding, the evidence to support their findings began mounting internationally. (See more in 122, p 121).
1996 Prof Peter Doherty (1940 )
For discovering how the body knows which cells are its own
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; awarded with Swedish Professor Rolf M Zinkernagel
Peter Doherty and his Swedish colleague discovered a mechanism the immune system (via killer T cells) uses to know if an infected cell is one of its own or if it’s from another organism, such as a cell infected by a virus.
This knowledge helped scientists invent new vaccines, deal with tissue rejection in organ transplant recipients and the treat auto immune diseases, such as rheumatic conditions, multiple sclerosis and diabetes.